Musicotherapy (Music Therapy)
World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) briefly describes music therapy as follows:
"It is the use of sound, rhythm, melody and harmony in a planned manner and in the course of a process to respond to the physical, mental, emotional, social and cognitive needs of patients individually or as a group."
Elements of using dance and body language can be added to music therapy, depending on the condition of the patients and their illnesses.
Since the ancient ages the healing effect of music has been discovered and used for curing purposes throughout the world from the furthest east to the furthest west. In ancient times, human communities living in shamanic beliefs used music to make magic, to see the future, to communicate with the dead, to treat psychiatric problems and other diseases and to heal wounds.
Around B.C. 3000s, Altai Turks used music for treatment purposes. In Turkish-Islamic world, Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) in the 9th century and famous Turkish physician Avicenna (Ibni Sina) in the 10th century, performed studies on this subject and made determinations pertaining to musical modes.
In Eastern Rome and Byzantine Empires, physicians applied this curing method by accommodating the integrity of water and music with light beams. After the Turks arrived in Anatolia, during the Seljuk and Ottoman periods, a number of health facilities were opened within the borders of the Empire and the healing powers of the music were applied to patients.
Musicotherapy, as a complementary medicine method, contributes positively to the treatment of the following diseases:
- Scars and pain
- Psychiatric disorders
- Behavioral disorders in children
- Diseases related to the weakening of the immune system such as cancer
After it was noticed that music in the hospitals benefited the soldiers wounded in World War II, western countries began to regard musicotherapy as a field of expertise and to use the same in complementary medicine. In the 1970s, it was started to be implemented on alcohol addicts and cancer patients in the Maryland psychiatric research center in the USA. Creative music therapy developed by American musician P. Nordoff and British special training expert C. Robbins was applied in many countries such as England, USA, African countries, Australia, Japan and Germany as of 1959.
Music therapy methods have been developed in terms of applied methodology since ancient times and the results observed are being measured with modern medical devices and statistical data are being produced. In passive therapy application, which is one of the methods of musical therapy practiced in our hospital, we organize auditions to our patients receiving treatment in units such as hematology, oncology and chemotherapy. When appropriate we make verbal dialogues with them and help them to have some kind of rehabilitation. While instruments such as violin, guitar, lute, oud, kemancha, rebab, reed flute are used in such auditions we as well add vocal music therein from time to time. By choosing the percussion instruments more meticulously and carefully, we do not mean to disturb the patients, rather we choose the ones which could help them to relax. At this point the tuning frequencies we use in our instruments have a substantial role. The basic method used in sound curing is the frequency of the vibration. The zones where the disease is harbored are the zones the frequency whereof is distorted. It is required to transmit the sound waves having the right frequencies to such zones. In our day sound frequencies having positive effects on diseases, have been determined by examining them in the computer environment.
The modern western world while conducting their studies on music therapy is obliged to analyze and evaluate the social, historical, psychological and traditional structures of the communities applying such therapy. In this context, the templates that each country will apply to its own people shall differ. For example, in the late 18th century, Sultan's head physician Gevrekzade Hasan Bin Ahmet in the Ottoman State in his leaflet named as "Therapy with Music" matches the Turkish music modes with the diseases which they shall help and gives descriptions regarding what time and how such musical modes shall be applied. While these musical modes are effective in therapies applied in our country, in the west 24-tones sound system of tempered music is used.
In Turkey while a Muslim born baby is being given a name, the azan (call to prayer) is sung to his/her ear. In his babyhood his mother sings the lullaby of "sleep and grow up my baby" composed in the tune Hejaz. While the therapy is applied the patient's religion, worldview, social and psychological conditions must be considered carefully.
Nevertheless we test as well the effects of contemporary music along with classical western, classical Turkish, pentatonic and folk music in this passive therapy we conduct. For example, we play samples from the 15th century Western Renaissance music to a patient who works as a shepherd in his village and came to the hospital for treatment. We draw the interest and attention of the patient out of the environment wherewith he is acquainted and out of his living. At this point, we observe that we can disconnect the patient from being focused on his illness in the course of the musical process. We are convinced that passive therapy applied with love and knowledge in the right frequency shall be an unexceptional curing instrument on both indigenous and international patients.
Acupuncture is completely a scientific treatment method applied by dipping needles into specific points of the body for the purpose of curing various illnesses. Acupuncture has been used notably in China and other Far Eastern countries in order to cure diseases for a period of over 5,000 years. Today it is a complementary medicine method which is widely used in many western countries such as Germany, Austria, France and the USA. The main philosophy of such treatment is based on the unity, equilibrium and harmony between the energy flows that exist everywhere in the whole universe whether living or non-living. Acupuncture in this sense is a balance therapy.
The World Health Organization acknowledged acupuncture treatment as a scientific method in 1979 and publicized a list of medical conditions wherein it is effective. In our country, "the Regulations on Acupuncture" was issued in 1991 and the conditions of application of such treatment and the qualifications of the practitioners were prescribed. Acupuncture might be applied by medical doctors who completed the 500 hours course opened with the approval of the Ministry of Health and succeeded in the examination and thereby granted the certificate accredited by the Ministry of Health.
A Latin word, “ozone” means "smelling". As we know it, ozone is a gas which is formed by conversion of O2 to O3 by UVB rays in the upper layers of atmosphere. It is a heavy gas and has a unique smell. Ozone was first defined in late 1800s by Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German Chemist. Ozone is used for surface cleaning, water cleaning, sanitation and kills viruses and bacteria. Ozone cannot be taken by inhalation because it is toxic if inhaled. It can only be applied as a cream which is produced with olive oil. If mixed with other oils, it flames up. Or it may directly be injected into a muscle or a joint. There is also another method called “major hemotherapy". In this method, the patient's blood is transferred to a vacuum bottle where it is enriched with ozone and administered back to the patient. Also, there are treatment methods called "bag therapy" to treat foot lesions called "diabetic foot” and extremity lesions, which are applied by keeping the extremity in a special ozone-oxygen mixture.